Commerce and Kinship
Pepper and Gambier
Much of the pioneering research in this period of Singapore’s history has been done by Carl Trocki, especially in his books Prince of Pirates (1979) and Opium and Empire (1990). This narrative draws heavily on his reconstruction of the dynamics of that period. The background, especially the intricate interactions of the kongsis and the revenue farms, cannot be summarized effectively here without detracting from my main subject, and I recommend interested readers to consult Trocki’s books.