Commerce and Kinship


Pepper and Gambier


Much of the pioneering research in this period of Singapore’s history has been done by Carl Trocki, especially in his books Prince of Pirates (1979) and Opium and Empire (1990). This narrative draws heavily on his reconstruction of the dynamics of that period. The background, especially the intricate interactions of the kongsis and the revenue farms, cannot be summarized effectively here without detracting from my main subject, and I recommend interested readers to consult Trocki’s books.

Previous (Early Commerce) | Back to Life | Next (Beginnings)

Original content and web presentation Copyright (c) 2007-2016 Brandon Seah